Sargon Von Akkad Navigationsmenü

Sargon von Akkad war von 23v. Chr. bzw. 22v. Chr. König von Akkad. Mit Sargon von Akkad beginnt eine neue Ära in der Geschichte von Mesopotamien. Sargon von Akkad und seine Gefährten verwendeten eine semitische Sprache und. Sargon von Akkad (𒈗𒁺 Šarru-kīnu; auch Sargon von Akkade) war von 23v. Chr. (mittlere Chronologie) bzw. 22v. Chr. (kurze. Sargon von Akkad (23v. Chr.) war Begründer des Reiches von Akkad. Über sein Leben ist wenig Sicheres. Durch den Text werde „zum erstenmal nach der Dynastie von. Akkad der Umfang und Aufbau des unter dem 'König der Welť" (nach Forrer Sargon I. von. Assyrien)​. ein Reich mit der Hauptstadt Akkad errichteten. Sargon und das Reich von Akkad​. Der Herrscher diese Reiches hieß Sargon von Akkad und beherrschte von da.

Sargon Von Akkad

Sargon von Akkad (23v. Chr.) war Begründer des Reiches von Akkad. Über sein Leben ist wenig Sicheres. ein Reich mit der Hauptstadt Akkad errichteten. Sargon und das Reich von Akkad​. Der Herrscher diese Reiches hieß Sargon von Akkad und beherrschte von da. Durch den Text werde „zum erstenmal nach der Dynastie von. Akkad der Umfang und Aufbau des unter dem 'König der Welť" (nach Forrer Sargon I. von. Assyrien)​.

Sargon Von Akkad Video

Sargon Von Akkad Die Legende von Sargon von Akkad. Ancient Near Eastern Texts 1. Sargon, der mächtige König von Akkadien bin Ich, 2. Meine Mutter war einfach und. von 21 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "Sargon von Akkad". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. GRATIS-​Versand. Babylonien Kopf eines Sumerers Der Sumererherrschaft bereitete zunächst der AKKADER Sargon ein Ende, der die semit. Dynastie von Akkad(um – Replikat "Kopf des Sargon von Akkad", Kunstguss und weitere hochwertige Museums-Replikate bekannter Künstler und Epochen gibt es bei ars mundi. Die Errichtung des Reiches von Akkad ist untrennbar mit dem Dynastiegründer Sargon von Akkad verbunden, unter dem und unter dessen Enkel Naram-Sîn.

Sargon Von Akkad - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Barton, Archaeology and The Bible, 3rd Ed. Er lautet nach einer neueren deutschen Bearbeitung:. Source: From: George A. Ich brach aus aus den kleinen Bergen. So ist im Einzelfall zu prüfen, wie fest die Herrschaft Sargons über ein Gebiet, das er erobert haben will, tatsächlich war. Einer Theorie zufolge befand sich Akkad gegenüber von Sippar am linken Euphratufer und war eventuell sogar ältester Stadtteil Sippars. Sargon Von Akkad Aqqi der Wasserschöpfer setzte mich wahrlich in seine Gärtnerarbeit ein. Aber seine Schwester stellte sich in einiger Entfernung hin, damit sie erführe, wie this web page ihm ergehen würde. Der Impressionismus verlieh der Bildhauerkunst neue Impulse. So here also alles dafür, dass die Akkadische Sargonlegende in neuassyrischer Zeit entstanden ist. Ich veränderte Source: From: George A. Dort fand ihn ein Gärtner und nahm ihn zu sich. Ich brach aus aus den kleinen Bergen. Aber durch die Liebe der Göttin Ischtar wurde er zum König. Ich stieg auf in die hohen Berge ; Sargons Tochter war die Priesterin En-hedu-annavon der religions- und are Reichster FuГџballverein very bedeutende Texte erhalten sind. Überhaupt scheint Sargon von Akkad bei den neuassyrischen Herrschern 9. Als ich ein Gärtner war liebte mich die Göttin Ishtar [Venus], Er lautet nach einer neueren deutschen Bearbeitung:. Damit liegt also keine Quelle aus der Zeit des historischen Sargon von Akkade vor, sondern wiederum ein Dokument seines Nachlebens. Die Akkadische Sargonlegende hat in neuerer Zeit wieder das Interesse der Bibelwissenschaft gefunden, nachdem Eckart Otto die These erneuert hat, dass die Aussetzungsgeschichte des Mose in Exodus 2, 1—10 nach ihrem Vorbild gestaltet wurde. Näheres sollte auf der Diskussionsseite angegeben sein. That place is pure; please click for source place is brilliant. Javascript Ihres Browsers ist nicht aktiv. Dennoch wurde die Stadt, trotz intensiver Suchen nicht gefunden. One who invented the bow would, after death, be worshipped as a god. Und siehe, es war ein weinendes Knäblein! Shushuntarana Napilhush. Archived from the original on learn more here March Retrieved 15 May Darüber berichten nun nicht mehr nur legendäre Erzählungen, sondern Königsinschriften aus der Zeit Sargons, wobei hier nicht die spärlichen Originale, sondern die in altbabylonischen Kopien erhaltenen Texte relevant sind. Die Charakterisierung der Mutter wird freilich in der Regel anders übersetzt, so dass sie eine Priesterin war. The Masks of God, Vol. The Telegraph. Eine Stadt dieses Namens ist sonst nirgends bezeugt.

Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 5 March Inside Higher Ed. Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 21 March Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association.

Games and Culture. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 15 May Sargon used seemingly every frame from Anyangwe's 3-minute, second video.

He found fault with most of the points she made, as well as the way she made them. After watching his piece, it's clear that there's no point in going to the Guardian's site to see the original because he's just shown you the whole thing.

Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 7 July Feminist Media Studies.

In Golbeck, Jennifer ed. Online Harassment. Human—Computer Interaction Series. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 24 August Financial Times. Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 8 March Business Insider.

Archived from the original on 27 March Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 19 December The Forward.

Retrieved 17 April The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 20 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 18 June The Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 12 February The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 18 June Evening Standard.

Archived from the original on 16 December Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 13 April The Daily Beast.

Archived from the original on 13 April Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 12 April The Sunday Times.

Archived from the original on 2 April Irish Examiner. Press Association. News UK. Swindon Advertiser.

Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 20 April BBC News. Retrieved 19 May NBC News.

Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 23 April The Jewish Chronicle.

Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 3 March Nieman Journalism Lab.

A contemporary reference to Sargon thought to have been found on the cylinder seal of Ibni-sharru, a high-ranking official serving under Sargon.

Joachim Menant published a description of this seal in , reading the king's name as Shegani-shar-lukh , and did not yet identify it with "Sargon the Elder" who was identified with the Old Assyrian king Sargon I.

In , the British Museum acquired the "mace-head of Shar-Gani-sharri", a votive gift deposited at the temple of Shamash in Sippar.

Primary sources pertaining to Sargon are sparse; the main near-contemporary reference is that in the various versions of the Sumerian King List.

Here, Sargon is mentioned as the son of a gardener, former cup-bearer of Ur-Zababa of Kish. He usurped the kingship from Lugal-zage-si of Uruk and took it to his own city of Akkad.

Various copies of the king list give the duration of his reign as either 54, 55 or 56 years. In absolute years, his reign would correspond to ca.

Foster argued that the reading of 55 years as the duration of Sargon's reign was, in fact, a corruption of an original interpretation of 37 years.

An older version of the king list gives Sargon's reign as lasting for 40 years. Thorkild Jacobsen marked the clause about Sargon's father being a gardener as a lacuna, indicating his uncertainty about its meaning.

The claim that Sargon was the original founder of Akkad has been called into question with the discovery of an inscription mentioning the place and dated to the first year of Enshakushanna , who almost certainly preceded him.

Some of the regnal year names of Sargon are preserved, and throw some light in the events of his reign, particularly the conquest of the surrounding territories of Simurrum , Elam and Mari , and Uru'a, thought to be a city in Elam : [32].

Sargon became the subject of legendary narratives describing his rise to power from humble origins and his conquest of Mesopotamia in later Assyrian and Babylonian literature.

Apart from these secondary, and partly legendary, accounts, there are many inscriptions due to Sargon himself, although the majority of these are known only from much later copies.

Sargon appears to have promoted the use of Semitic Akkadian in inscriptions. He frequently calls himself "king of Akkad" first, after the city of Akkad which he apparently founded.

He appears to have taken over the rule of Kish at some point, and later also much of Mesopotamia, referring to himself as "Sargon, king of Akkad, overseer of Inanna , king of Kish, anointed of Anu , king of the land [Mesopotamia], governor ensi of Enlil ".

While various copies of the Sumerian king list credit Sargon with a 56, 55, or year reign, dated documents have been found for only four different year-names of his actual reign.

The names of these four years describe his campaigns against Elam, Mari, Simurrum a Hurrian region , and Uru'a an Elamite city-state.

During Sargon's reign, East Semitic was standardized and adapted for use with the cuneiform script previously used in the Sumerian language into what is now known as the " Akkadian language ".

A style of calligraphy developed in which text on clay tablets and cylinder seals was arranged amidst scenes of mythology and ritual.

Among the most important sources for Sargon's reign is a tablet of the Old Babylonian period recovered at Nippur in the University of Pennsylvania expedition in the s.

The tablet is a copy of the inscriptions on the pedestal of a Statue erected by Sargon in the temple of Enlil.

Its text was edited by Arno Poebel and Leon Legrain In the inscription, Sargon styles himself "Sargon, king of Akkad, overseer mashkim of Inanna, king of Kish, anointed guda of Anu, king of the land [Mesopotamia], governor ensi of Enlil".

It celebrates the conquest of Uruk and the defeat of Lugalzagesi , whom Sargon brought "in a collar to the gate of Enlil": [45].

Sargon then conquered Ur and E-Ninmar and "laid waste" the territory from Lagash to the sea, and from there went on to conquer and destroy Umma : [47].

He conquered Eninmar, destroyed its walls, and conquered its district and Lagash as far as the sea. He washed his weapons in the sea.

He was victorious over Umma in battle, [conquered the city, and destroyed its walls]. Sargon also claims in his inscriptions that he is "Sargon, king of the world, conqueror of Elam and Parahshum ", the two major polities to the east of Sumer.

Sargon triumphed over 34 cities in total. Ships from Meluhha , Magan and Dilmun , rode at anchor in his capital of Akkad. He entertained a court or standing army of 5, men who "ate bread daily before him".

A group of four Babylonian texts, summarized as "Sargon Epos" or Res Gestae Sargonis , shows Sargon as a military commander asking the advice of many subordinates before going on campaigns.

The narrative of Sargon, the Conquering Hero, is set at Sargon's court, in a situation of crisis. Sargon addresses his warriors, praising the virtue of heroism, and a lecture by a courtier on the glory achieved by a champion of the army, a narrative relating a campaign of Sargon's into the far land of Uta-raspashtim , including an account of a "darkening of the Sun" and the conquest of the land of Simurrum , and a concluding oration by Sargon listing his conquests.

The narrative of King of Battle relates Sargon's campaign against the Anatolian city of Purushanda in order to protect his merchants.

Versions of this narrative in both Hittite and Akkadian have been found. The Hittite version is extant in six fragments, the Akkadian version is known from several manuscripts found at Amarna, Assur, and Nineveh.

Famine and war threatened Sargon's empire during the latter years of his reign. The Chronicle of Early Kings reports that revolts broke out throughout the area under the last years of his overlordship:.

Afterward in his [Sargon's] old age all the lands revolted against him, and they besieged him in Akkad; and Sargon went onward to battle and defeated them; he accomplished their overthrow, and their widespreading host he destroyed.

Afterward he attacked the land of Subartu in his might, and they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled that revolt, and defeated them; he accomplished their overthrow, and their widespreading host he destroyed, and he brought their possessions into Akkad.

The soil from the trenches of Babylon he removed, and the boundaries of Akkad he made like those of Babylon.

But because of the evil which he had committed, the great lord Marduk was angry, and he destroyed his people by famine.

From the rising of the sun unto the setting of the sun they opposed him and gave him no rest. Leo Oppenheim translates the last sentence as "From the East to the West he [i.

Marduk] alienated them from him and inflicted upon him as punishment that he could not rest in his grave.

Shortly after securing Sumer, Sargon embarked on a series of campaigns to subjugate the entire Fertile Crescent. According to the Chronicle of Early Kings , a later Babylonian historiographical text:.

His splendor, over the lands it diffused. He crossed the sea in the east. In the eleventh year he conquered the western land to its farthest point.

He brought it under one authority. He set up his statues there and ferried the west's booty across on barges.

He stationed his court officials at intervals of five double hours and ruled in unity the tribes of the lands. He marched to Kazallu and turned Kazallu into a ruin heap, so that there was not even a perch for a bird left.

In the east, Sargon defeated four leaders of Elam , led by the king of Awan. The Sumerian-language Sargon legend contains a legendary account of Sargon's rise to power.

It is an older version of the previously-known Assyrian legend, discovered in in Nippur and first edited in The extant versions are incomplete, but the surviving fragments name Sargon's father as La'ibum.

After a lacuna , the text skips to Ur-Zababa , king of Kish , who awakens after a dream, the contents of which are not revealed on the surviving portion of the tablet.

For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as his cup-bearer. Soon after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargon's, involving the favor of the goddess Inanna and the drowning of Ur-Zababa by the goddess.

The part of the interpretation of the king's dream has parallels to the biblical story of Joseph , the part about the letter with the carrier's death sentence has similarities to the Greek story of Bellerophon and the biblical story of Uriah.

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess.

Only the beginning of the text the first two columns is known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not.

The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu , which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates.

My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me.

The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me.

Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses , Karna , and Oedipus , were noted by psychoanalyst Otto Rank in He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses.

Sargon is also one of the many suggestions for the identity or inspiration for the biblical Nimrod. Ewing William suggested Sargon based on his unification of the Babylonians and the Neo-Assyrian birth legend.

The name of Sargon's main wife, Queen Tashlultum , [70] and those of a number of his children are known to us. His daughter Enheduanna was a priestess who composed ritual hymns.

Manishtushu would be succeeded by his own son, Naram-Sin. Sargon of Akkad is sometimes identified as the first person in recorded history to rule over an empire in the sense of the central government of a multi-ethnic territory , [75] [76] [77] although earlier Sumerian rulers such as Lugal-zage-si might have a similar claim.

Sargon was regarded as a model by Mesopotamian kings for some two millennia after his death. The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire.

Sargon may indeed have introduced the notion of "empire" as understood in the later Assyrian period; the Neo-Assyrian Sargon Text , written in the first person, has Sargon challenging later rulers to "govern the black-headed people" i.

Sargon shared his name with two later Mesopotamian kings. Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus showed great interest in the history of the Sargonid dynasty and even conducted excavations of Sargon's palaces and those of his successors.

Although historically inaccurate and supernatural in nature, The Scorpion King: Rise of a Warrior features Sargon of Akkad as a murderous army commander who uses black magic.

He was the film's main villain and was portrayed by American actor and mixed martial artist Randy Couture. The twentieth episode of the second season of Star Trek the original series, Return to Tomorrow , features an ancient, telepathic alien named Sargon who once ruled a mighty empire.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Akkadian king. For the YouTuber, see Carl Benjamin.

Founder of Akkadian Empire. Victory stele of Sargon. Fragment of the Victory Stele of Sargon , showing Sargon with a royal hair bun , holding a mace and wearing a kaunakes flounced royal coat on his left shoulder with a large belt left , followed by an attendant holding a royal umbrella center and a procession of dignitaries holding weapons.

Louvre Museum. Numerous other inscriptions related to Sargon are known. Asia portal. MA KI ". MA, meaning "land, country", is the old Sumerian name of the cultivated part of Mesopotamia Sumer.

Gaston Maspero ed. Sayce , trans. A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. By Brian Lewis". Journal of Near Eastern Studies.

Retrieved 25 May Chronicles concerning early Babylonian kings. London, Luzac and co. Journal of the American Oriental Society.

British Institute for the Study of Iraq. I, Cylindres orientaux, avec la collaboration de Joachim Menant , E.

Leroux, Paris, , no. Douglas R. Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 21 March Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association. Games and Culture.

Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 15 May Sargon used seemingly every frame from Anyangwe's 3-minute, second video.

He found fault with most of the points she made, as well as the way she made them. After watching his piece, it's clear that there's no point in going to the Guardian's site to see the original because he's just shown you the whole thing.

Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 7 July Feminist Media Studies.

In Golbeck, Jennifer ed. Online Harassment. Human—Computer Interaction Series. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 24 August Financial Times. Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 8 March Business Insider.

Archived from the original on 27 March Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 19 December The Forward.

Retrieved 17 April The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 20 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 18 June The Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 12 February The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 18 June Evening Standard.

Archived from the original on 16 December Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 13 April The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 13 April Daily Mirror.

Archived from the original on 12 April The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2 April Irish Examiner. Press Association.

News UK. Swindon Advertiser. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 20 April BBC News. Retrieved 19 May NBC News.

Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 23 April The Jewish Chronicle.

Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 3 March Nieman Journalism Lab.

Archived from the original on 25 May It's laziness". Archived from the original on 16 April The part of the interpretation of the king's dream has parallels to the biblical story of Joseph , the part about the letter with the carrier's death sentence has similarities to the Greek story of Bellerophon and the biblical story of Uriah.

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess.

Only the beginning of the text the first two columns is known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not.

The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu , which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me.

She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me.

The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me.

Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses , Karna , and Oedipus , were noted by psychoanalyst Otto Rank in He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses.

Sargon is also one of the many suggestions for the identity or inspiration for the biblical Nimrod. Ewing William suggested Sargon based on his unification of the Babylonians and the Neo-Assyrian birth legend.

The name of Sargon's main wife, Queen Tashlultum , [70] and those of a number of his children are known to us. His daughter Enheduanna was a priestess who composed ritual hymns.

Manishtushu would be succeeded by his own son, Naram-Sin. Sargon of Akkad is sometimes identified as the first person in recorded history to rule over an empire in the sense of the central government of a multi-ethnic territory , [75] [76] [77] although earlier Sumerian rulers such as Lugal-zage-si might have a similar claim.

Sargon was regarded as a model by Mesopotamian kings for some two millennia after his death. The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire.

Sargon may indeed have introduced the notion of "empire" as understood in the later Assyrian period; the Neo-Assyrian Sargon Text , written in the first person, has Sargon challenging later rulers to "govern the black-headed people" i.

Sargon shared his name with two later Mesopotamian kings. Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus showed great interest in the history of the Sargonid dynasty and even conducted excavations of Sargon's palaces and those of his successors.

Although historically inaccurate and supernatural in nature, The Scorpion King: Rise of a Warrior features Sargon of Akkad as a murderous army commander who uses black magic.

He was the film's main villain and was portrayed by American actor and mixed martial artist Randy Couture. The twentieth episode of the second season of Star Trek the original series, Return to Tomorrow , features an ancient, telepathic alien named Sargon who once ruled a mighty empire.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Akkadian king. For the YouTuber, see Carl Benjamin. Founder of Akkadian Empire.

Victory stele of Sargon. Fragment of the Victory Stele of Sargon , showing Sargon with a royal hair bun , holding a mace and wearing a kaunakes flounced royal coat on his left shoulder with a large belt left , followed by an attendant holding a royal umbrella center and a procession of dignitaries holding weapons.

Louvre Museum. Numerous other inscriptions related to Sargon are known. Asia portal. MA KI ". MA, meaning "land, country", is the old Sumerian name of the cultivated part of Mesopotamia Sumer.

Gaston Maspero ed. Sayce , trans. A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. By Brian Lewis". Journal of Near Eastern Studies.

Retrieved 25 May Chronicles concerning early Babylonian kings. London, Luzac and co. Journal of the American Oriental Society.

British Institute for the Study of Iraq. I, Cylindres orientaux, avec la collaboration de Joachim Menant , E. Leroux, Paris, , no. Douglas R.

Cambridge University Press. The Elamite World. Fouilles J. Boston Museum Bulletin. Kramer p. Sargonic and Gutian Periods. Sayce, review of G.

Contenau, Les Tablettes de Kerkouk , Antiquity 1. The source of this is Tompkins, Trans. Astour in Eblaitica vol. In Chavalas, Mark William ed.

The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Leo translator. James B. Pritchard, ed. Princeton: University Press, , p.

The Cambridge History of Iran. The Sumerian story was popular in the early second millennium, and the Akkadian legend may originally have introduced it.

Cuneiform scribes were trained with such works for many centuries. They enjoyed new popularity in the late eighth century when Sargon II of Assyria sought to associate himself with his famous namesake.

The myth of the birth of the hero: a psychological interpretation of mythology. English translation by Drs. Robbins and Smith Ely Jelliffe.

The Masks of God, Vol. The Temple Dictionary of the Bible. London, J. Vetus Testamentum. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Retrieved 29 July Michael Roaf Mesopotamia and the ancient Near East. Stonehenge Press. Van Dijk. The Exaltation of Inanna. Yale Univ.

Press, September The Biblical Archaeologist. February Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

There are, however, older references to rulers bearing Semitic names, notably the pre-Sargonic king Meskiang-nunna of Ur by his queen Gan-saman, mentioned in an inscription on a bowl found at Ur.

In addition, the names of some pre-Sargonic rulers of Kish in the Sumerian king list have been interpreted as having Semitic etymologies, which might extend the Semitic presence in the Near East to the 29th or 30th century.

See J. Postgate, Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. British School of Archaeology in Iraq I ascended the upper mountains; I burst through the lower mountains.

The country of the sea I besieged three times; Dilmun I captured. Unto the great Dur-ilu I went up, I I altered Whatsoever king shall be exalted after me, Let him rule, let him govern the black-headed peoples; mighty mountains with axes of bronze let him destroy; let him ascend the upper mountains, let him break through the lower mountains; the country of the sea let him besiege three times; Dilmun let him capture; To great Dur-ilu let him go up.

London: Thames and Hudson, , p. The Scorpion King. Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 27 July Rulers of Mesopotamia —80 BCE.

Hallo; W. Simpson The Ancient Near East. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. Mesopotamia: Civilization Begins. Getty Publications.

Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books Limited. Archived from the original on 8 May Wipf and Stock Publishers. Namespaces Article Talk.